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Glossary

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This glossary is updated periodically. The Introduction explains how the glossary is derived and limits its applicability.

 

AGC (Automatic Gain Control):

A feature of cameras that  enhances videos of low lights to maintain the output video signal strength. More Detail.

Amp (Ampere):

The unit of measure for the rate of electrical current flow characterized by the symbols l (in Ohm's law formulas) and A. One ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.   More Detail.

Aperture:

The (Camera) lens opening that controls the amount of light that reaches the image sensor. Aperture is expressed as F-stop, e.g. F2.8 or f/2.8. The smaller the F-stop number (or f/value), the larger the lens opening (aperture).   More Detail.

ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee):

ATSC is a set of standards developed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.

The ATSC standard was developed in the early 1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of electronics and telecommunications companies that assembled to develop a specification for what is now known as HDTV. ATSC formats also include standard-definition formats, although initially only HDTV services were launched in the digital format. More Detail.

Auto Iris:

A device in the camera lens that self-adjusts to light level changes.  The Iris opens and closes to control the amount of light passing through the lens to reach the image sensor. More Detail.

AWB (Automatic White Balance):

A feature of cameras that  automatically adjusts to varying light conditions to maintain the correct white balance on the image. Proper camera white balance has to take into account the "color temperature" of a light source, which refers to the relative warmth or coolness of white light. For more detail, click here More Detail.

AWG (American Wire Gauge):

AWG is the U.S. standard measuring gauge for certain conductors, including copper.  The higher the AWG number the thinner the wire.  This measure stems from the fact that the original measurement represented the number of times the wire was run through a wire machine which thus reduced the diameter of the wire. More Detail.

Baud (Baud Rate):

The rate at which data is transferred. Named after Maurice Emile Baud.  The Baud rate is equivalent to bits per second in cases where each data event represents exactly 1 bit. To communicate, the baud rates of the equipment must be set the same. Note the baud rate and bit rate in a system can be different. More Detail.

Balun:

A balun is a type of electrical transformer that can convert electrical signals that are balanced about ground (differential) to signals that are unbalanced (single-ended) and vice versa. A balun is also used on the video recorder end to convert back from the 100-ohm balanced to 75-ohm unbalanced. A balun of this type has a BNC connector with two screw terminals. VGA/DVI baluns are baluns with electronic circuitry used to connect VGA/DVI sources (laptop, DVD, etc) to VGA/DVI display devices over long runs of CAT-5/CAT-6 cable. Runs over 130 m (400 ft) may lose quality due to attenuation and variations in the arrival time of each signal. More Detail.

Bit Rate:

The term bit rate is a synonym for data transfer rate. Bps = Bytes per second, bps = bits per second.  The digital equivalent of bandwidth, bit rate is measured in bits per second.  It is used to express the rate at which the compressed bit stream is transmitted.  The higher the bit rate, the more information that can be carried. More Detail.

BLC (Back Light Compensation):

Cameras with BLC feature will adjust the brightness level of the image to compensate for the bright background so that more detail of the dark objects can be seen. For an example, when a camera is directed toward a door, the bright light from outside will normally make the overall image too bright to show detail on a subject backing to the door. BLC will compensate for the bright background so foreground objects are not silhouetted.

BNC Connector:

BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) connector is a type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable. It is used for professional video connections. It is an alternative to the RCA connector. See also RCA Connector More Detail.

Board lens:

The S-mount is a standard lens mount used in various surveillance CCTV cameras and webcams. It uses a male metric M12 thread with 0.5 mm pitch on the lens and a corresponding female one the lens mount. With this type of lens mount the lenses are usually attached directly to the printed circuit board of the sensor, it is often called "board lenses" or "M12 lenses". The supported sensor formats range from the smallest 1/6-inch type to the largest 2/3-inch having an 11mm diagonal sensor. The lens mount is usually made of plastic and the lenses lack an iris control.

Cat5 (Category 5 cable):

Category 5 cable is a twisted pair high signal integrity cable type often referred to as Cat5 or Cat-5. Most Category-5 cables are unshielded, relying on the twisted pair design for noise rejection. Category 5 has been superseded by the Category 5e specification. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks and is also used to carry many other signals such as video. According to the standard for category 5e cable, the maximum length for a cable segment is 100 meters (328 ft). If longer runs are required, the use of active hardware such as a repeater, or a switch, is necessary.  This 100 meter limit is all inclusive. According to the standard, the practical limit for permanently installed cable is about 90 meters, leaving 5 meters at each end for the patch cables that connect the end equipment to the wall panel. More Detail.

C/CS Mount:

Cine mount.  The first standard for CCTV lens screw mounting.  It is defined with the thread of 1''(25.4 mm) in diameter and 32 threads/inch, and the back flange-to-CCD distance of 17.526 mm (0.69'').  The C-mount description applies to both lenses and cameras. 

CS Mount (Cine Short Mount) is the newer standard for camera lens mounting. It uses the same physical thread as the C-mount, but the back flange-to-CCD distance is reduced to 12.5 mm.

C-mount lenses can be put on both, C-mount and CS-mount cameras, but must use a C-moun adaptor when used on a CS-mount camera. More Detail.

CCD (Charge-Coupled Device):

CCD and CMOS are two main types of technology in current security cameras. CCDs containing grids of pixels are used in Digital camera, Image scanner and video cameras as light-sensing devices.

CCDs boast higher sensitivity, and higher dynamic range than CMOS sensors  while CMOS offers lower product cost and lower power consumption More Detail.

CCIR:

Committée Consultatif International des Radiocommuniqué, which is the European standardization body that has set the standards for television in Europe.  It was initially monochrome; therefore, today the term CCIR is usually used to refer to monochrome cameras that are used in PAL countries. More Detail.

CCTV (Closed Circuit Television):

A system in which the circuit is closed and all the elements are directly connected. The most widely applications of CCTV are in the security industry.  More Detail.

CIF (Common Intermediate Format):

CIF is part of the ITU H.261 videoconferencing standard. It specifies a data rate of 30 frames per second (fps), with each frame containing 288 lines and 352 pixels per line. It is a format used to standardise the horizontal and vertical resolutions in pixels of in video signals. A related standard, QCIF (Quarter CIF), transfers one fourth the amount of data.  More Detail.

CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor):

Complementary-symmetry/Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. CMOS image sensors which use the ASP (Active Pixel Sensor) technology, are one of the two major types of image sensors used in security cameras. The other is CCD image sensors 

Comparing to CCDs, CMOS sensors are cheaper to make and consume less power, but they are more prone to noise.  More Detail.

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial cable is the most common type of cable used for transmitting a video signal through copper wire. This type of wiring has a coaxial cross-section where an outer shielding protects the actual interior signal conductor from electromagnetic interference. In the CCTV industry, the term "coax" usually refers to RG-59 cable with BNC-type plug ends.  More Detail.

CODEC (COder/DECoder):

A CODEC is a device or software that compresses and/or decompresses digital signals. It is used for converting audio/video signals from analog to digital and vise vesa during the process of data transmission and storage. Each data format such MP4, AVI, etc. needs its own CODEC. More Detail.

CVBS (Composite Video, Blanking, and Sync):

Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. In contrast to component video (YPbPr) it contains all required video information, including colors in a single line-level signal. Like component video, composite-video cables do not carry audio and are often paired with audio cables.Composite video is often designated by the CVBS initialism, meaning "Composite Video, Blanking, and Sync." More Detail.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol):

DHCP is an auto configuration protocol used on IP networks. Computers that are connected to IP networks must be configured before they can communicate with other computers on the network. DHCP allows a computer to be configured automatically, eliminating the need for intervention by a network administrator. It also provides a central database for keeping track of computers that have been connected to the network. This prevents two computers from accidentally being configured with the same IP address. More Detail.

DSP (Digital signal processor):

DSP chips control the encoding of video images. Image processing such as basic video analytics can be done by the encoder DSP.

DVR (Digital Video Recorder):

A device that records video/audio signals onto hard drive-based digital storage medium. In the CCTV security field, there are generally two types of DVRs, PC-based DVRs and Embedded DVRs. DVRs are replacing the traditionally widely used VCR. More Detail.

EFFIO (Enhanced Features and Fine Image Processor):

Enhanced Features and Fine Image Processor, is a  signal processor which realizes high resolution, high S/N ratio and high color reproduction for security camera. More Detail.

ePTZ (electronic Pan/Tilt/Zoom):

Electronic pan/tilt/zoom, enables users to select a target region for close-up shots by simply clicking on the camera video feed on their screen. By encoding and transmitting simply the image of the target region rather than the entire picture in megapixel resolution, ePTZ allows for more efficient bandwidth usage and CPU management. The electronic pan/tilt/zoom functionality also prevents a megapixel camera from mechanical wear and tear since it contains no moving parts.

Gamma Correction:

A correction of the linear response of a camera in order to compensate for the monitor phosphor screen non-linear response. It is measured with the exponential value of the curve describing the non-linearity.  A typical monochrome monitor's gamma is 2.2, and a camera needs to be set to the inverse value of 2.2(which is 0.45) for the overall system to respond linearly (i.e., unity). All ICR's cameras have a gamma correction of 0.45. More Detail

HAD (Hole Accumulation Diode):

Hole Accumulation Diode is a patented technique of the Sony Corporation to reduce electronic noise in a CCD or CMOS imaging sensor by reducing the so-called "dark" current that occur in the absence of light falling on the imager, resulting in noise reduction and enhanced image quality.

The "hole" refers to places in a semiconductor where an electron has been dislodged, thus creating a positive charge. These "holes" or positive charges can be created by heat or imperfections in the creation of the imaging chip. The "holes" are accumulated, or trapped, in a separate semiconductor layer that acts as a diode that prevents them from returning or creating noise.

"HAD" technology suppresses the fixed pattern noise that results from "dark" current that occurs regardless of the amount of absorbed light. By fabricating a hole-accumulation layer below the surface of the CCD, "dark" current can be suppressed at the source. More Detail

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface):

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a compact audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed digital data. HDMI supports, on a single cable, any uncompressed TV or PC video format, including standard, enhanced, and high-definition video; up to 8 channels of compressed or uncompressed digital audio; and a Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) connection. HDMI products started shipping in late 2003. Over 850 consumer electronics and PC companies have adopted the HDMI specification. Cables of about 5 meters (16 ft.) can be manufactured easily and inexpensively by using 28 AWG (0.081 mm²) conductors. With better quality construction and materials, including 24 AWG (0.205 mm²) conductors, a HDMI cable can reach lengths of up to 15 meters (49 ft.). More Detail.

Hue (Colour):

One of the three characteristics of video picture, the other two are saturation and luminance. Hue defines color on the basis of its position in the spectrum. More Detail

IEC Connector:

IEC connectors are a collection of power connector plugs and leads defined by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specification IEC 60320. C7 is commonly known as a figure-8 and connector C15 commonly known as a kettle lead. More Detail.

Internet:

The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others. More Detail

See also LAN, WAN

IP Code (International Protection Rating):

IP followed by two digits and an optional letter. As defined in international standard International Electrotechnical Commission" IEC 60529, it classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in Electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof.

The digits (characteristic numerals) indicate conformity with the conditions summarized in the tables below. Where there is no protection rating with regard to one of the criteria, the digit is replaced with the letter X. More Detail.

LAN (Local Area Network):

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a home, office, or college.

The mostly widely used term "Internet" refers to the global network that consists of all small computer networks, of which LAN is one type of them. LANs are connected together by WANs (Wide Area Networks).

The defining characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs (wide area networks) are: their much higher data rates; smaller geographic range; and that they do not require leased telecommunication lines. See also Internet, WAN. More Detail

LED (Light-Emitting Diode):

A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. Infrared LEDs are used in active infrared night vision systems combineing infrared illumination of spectral range 700-1000nm (just below the visible spectrum of the human eye) with CCD cameras sensitive to this light. The resulting scene, which is apparently dark to a human observer, appears as a monochrome image on a normal display screen. More Detail See Also

Luminance:

Luminance defines the luminous intensity of a video signal: brightness and contrast. A colour video picture contains two components, luminance - Y (brightness and contrast) and Chrominance - C (hue and saturation). It is normally measured by LUX. More Detail

Lux:

Measurement unit of the intensity of light. It is defined as the illumination of a surface when luminous flux of 1 lumen falls on an area of 1 m 2; It is also known as lumens per square metre.  One lux is equal to approximately 0.09290 foot candle. Minimum illumination is an important specification of a CCTV camera. It reveals the minimum lighting needed for the camera to produce visible image. More Detail

M12 lens

The S-mount is a standard lens mount used in various surveillance CCTV cameras and webcams. It uses a male metric M12 thread with 0.5 mm pitch on the lens and a corresponding female one the lens mount. For the lens mounts and lenses are usually attached directly to the pcb of the sensor, it is often called "board lenses" or "M12 lenses". The supported sensor formats range from the smallest 1/6-inch type to the largest 2/3-inch having an 11mm diagonal sensor. The lens mount is usually made of plastic and the lenses lack an iris control. More Detail.

MegaPixel:

A megapixel (MP or Mpx) is one million pixels, and is a term used not only for the number of pixels in an image, but also to express the number of image sensor elements of digital cameras or the number of display elements of digital displays. For example, a camera with an array of 2048×1536 sensor elements is commonly said to have "3.1 megapixels" (2048 × 1536 = 3,145,728). The megapixel count is often used as a figure of merit, though there are other figures that determine camera quality.Digital cameras use photosensitive electronics, either charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, consisting of a large number of single sensor elements, each of which records a measured intensity level. In most digital cameras, the sensor array is covered with a patterned color filter mosaic having red, green, and blue regions in the Bayer filter arrangement, so that each sensor element can record the intensity of a single primary color of light. The camera interpolates the color information of neighboring sensor elements, through a process called demosaicing, to create the final image. These sensor elements are often called "pixels", even though they only record 1 channel (only red, or green, or blue) of the final color image. Thus, two of the three color channels for each sensor must be interpolated and a so-called N-megapixel camera that produces an N-megapixel image provides only one-third of the information that an image of the same size could get from a scanner. Thus, certain color contrasts may look fuzzier than others, depending on the allocation of the primary colors (green has twice as many elements as red or blue in the Bayer arrangement). More Detail.  

Mux (Multiplexer):

Multiplexer  is a video switching device that accepts video input from multiple cameras and converts them to all display on one monitor and / or video recorder, similar to a quad video processor. However, a multiplexer is far more advanced than a simple quad processor. Video multiplexers use time division multiplexing, meaning that a full frame of video from each camera is recorded every few seconds. While multiplexed video does not achieve true realtime display or recording (there is a slight drag to the images on playback), multiplexers do offer the capability to change between a view of several cameras and a solid closeup view of only a single camera's view on playback of recorded video. When using multiple cameras, quads and multiplexers help to cut down on the amount of additional equipment needed for a dedicated surveillance system. However, DVR digital video recorders with multiple video inputs are quickly replacing quads and multiplexers. DVRs are now capable of doing what required a processor andVCR in the past (plus a whole lot more).  Click here to see ICR's full line of DVRs.

NTSC (National Television System Committee):

NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and some other places, mostly in the America. It is named for the National Television System Committee, the industry-wide standardization body that created it. More Detail

OSD (On Screen Display):

An on screen display is an image superimposed on a screen picture, often used to display settings for a CCTV camera on a screen. More Detail.

ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum):

ONVIF is an open industry forum for the development of a global standard for the interface of IP-based physical security products. The forum was established by Axis, Bosch and Sony in October 2008 and now has over 100 members. It is based on standard web-service technologies such as SOAP, WSDL and XML. More Detail.

PAL (Phase Alternation Line):

PAL is another major analog television system in use in large part of the world, mainly Europe, China, and other places. PAL system denotes 625 Lines and 50Hz comparing to NTSC system's 525 Lines and 60Hz. More Detail

PoE (Power over Ethernet):

Power over Ethernet or PoE technology describes a system to pass electrical power safely, along with data, on Ethernet cabling. More Detail.

PIXIM:

PIXIM technology employs hundreds of thousands of pixels each acting like individual cameras. These constantly self-adjusting pixels eliminate image-compromising visual noise and deliver high-resolution, natural colour, and clarity. The result is a high image quality regardless of lighting conditions or applications. Building upon technology developed at Stanford University in the 1990s, Pixim has created an image capture and processing system that provides high-quality pictures with enhanced dynamic range. Greater dynamic range significantly improves image quality in scenes consisting of both bright and dark areas. More Detail.

PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet):

The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames inside Ethernet frames. It is used mainly with DSL services where individual users connect to the DSL modem over Ethernet and in plain Metro Ethernet networks. It was developed by UUNET, Redback Networks and RouterWare and is available as an informational RFC 2516.

Ethernet networks are packet-based and have no concept of a connection or circuit and also lack basic security features to protect against IP and MAC conflicts and rogue DHCP servers. By using PPPoE, users can virtually "dial" from one machine to another over an Ethernet network, establish a point to point connection between them and then securely transport data packets over the connection. It is mainly used by telephone companies, since PPPoE is easily integrated with legacy dial-up AAA systems and fits perfectly into the ATM backbones. The protocol also permits very easy unbundling of DSLAMs where required by regulators, since the user would simply use a different login into PPP, then the ATM circuit would be routed to the user's ISP. Also pre-paid traffic bucket business models can be created with PPPoE more easily than with DHCP or multiplexing multiple users with different speed tiers or QoS through 1 DSL modem or by creating a different login for each static IP purchased by customers. More Detail.

PTZ (Pan/Tilt/Zoom):

PTZ stands for equipment (mostly cameras) with the ability to pan, tilt, and zoom, usually by remote user control. Much of PTZ equipment is completely integrated, meaning there is only one controller necessary to operate all three features. See ICRealtime's PTZ cameras.

Quad Processor:

Quad Processor is a video switching device that accepts video input from four cameras and converts them to all display on one monitor and / or video recorder. When using multiple cameras, quads and multiplexers help to cut down on the amount of additional equipment needed for a dedicated surveillance system. However, DVR digital video recorders with multiple video inputs are quickly replacing quads and multiplexers. DVRs are now capable of doing what required a processor and VCR in the past (plus a whole lot more).  Click here for info on ICR's quad processor.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks):

A technology designed to increase storage reliability through redundancy, using multiple hard disks. It describes a computer data storage scheme that can divide and replicate data among multiple disk drives. More Detail

RCA Connector:

RCA (Radio Corporation of America) connector is a common connector plug for standard consumer video and audio equipment. This type of connector plug is also knon as a "phono" plug. RCA jacks are found on all VCRs and televisions equipped to handle a composite video input. In most cases, RCA jacks are color coded yellow, white, and red. BNC plugs are easily adapted to standard consumer RCA connectors using a simple one-piece plug adapter.  More Detail

RG-59:

RG-59/U is a specific type of coaxial cable, often used for low-power video and RF signal connections. The cable has a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms. The 75 ohm impedance matches a dipole antenna in free space. "RG" was originally a unit indicator for bulk radio frequency (RF) cable in the U.S. military's Joint Electronics Type Designation System. The suffix "/U" means “for general utility use.” The number "59" was assigned sequentially. The "RG" unit indicator is no longer part of the JETDS system (MIL-STD-196E) and cable sold today under the RG-59 label does not necessarily meet military specifications. More Detail

RS-232:

RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. More Detail

RS-485:

Also known as TIA/EIA-485.  A standard that describes a method of transmitting information over a network, used to control PTZ cameras, a number of different protocols can be used. Digital communications networks implementing the RS-485 standard can be used effectively over long distances and in electrically noisy environments. More Detail.

SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment):

A type of computer interface for connecting to mass storage devices such as hard drives.  This technology offers improvements over previous ATA connections in terms of reduced cable size (reduced from 80 wires to seven) and  faster and more efficient data transfer.  eSATA is external SATA.  More Detail

Saturation (Colour):

A colour's saturation is the intensity of the colour in the active picture.  It is based on the colour's purity; a highly saturated hue has a vivid, intense colour, while a less saturated hue appears more muted and grey.   More Detail

Simplex, Duplex, Triplex, Pentaplex:

These terms concern the operation of video recorders (VCR, DVR) and multiple camera video processors like quads and multiplexers. They  indicate  the number of device's capacities that can be used simultaneously. For instance, a simplex device is only capable of performing one type of task at a time, whether that be recording or playback. A duplex device can perform two simultaneous functions like record and configure the monitor display. Triplex devices are capable of three tasks at the same time (usually record, playback, and zoom or other display functions). Pentaplex devices can perform six different tasks at the same time. ICRealtime's DVRs are all Pentaplex devices which can record, playback, liveview, remote liveview, remote search, and remote configuration change simultaneously  More Detail on DVRs.

S/N Ratio (Signal to Noise Ratio):

Signal to Noise Ratio indicates the ratio of noise to actual total signal (in a video or audio signal). The S/N number measures how much higher the signal level is to the level of background electronic noise, so a higher number means a clearer and crisper picture. Signal-to-noise ratio is expressed in decibels (dB).  More Detail

TFT (Thin film transistor):

TFT LCD thin film transistor liquid crystal display is a development of LCD technology which offers improved image quality compared with conventional LCD screens.  More Detail

TI DaVinci

The Texas Instruments DaVinci Technology combines TI's offering of digital signal processing chips, software, tools and support for developing a broad spectrum of optimized digital video end equipments. The DaVinci DSP is part of the popular TMS320 DSP family.
A typical multimedia system such as a digital video recorder or digital camera can be split roughly into two pieces: control and media. The control portion handles tasks such as memory card or hard disk access, user interface, and networking, while the media portion covers tasks such as encoding and decoding of audio and video. A general-purpose processor performs well in control tasks, but only the fastest of these processors are sufficiently powerful for intensive media-related tasks such as real-time, high-quality video encoding. A DSP, on the other hand, is superb at the repetitive, easily parallelizable media-related tasks, but usually performs poorly in control-related jobs.The idea behind the DaVinci family of processors is that by using both a general-purpose processor and a DSP, the control and media portions can both be executed by processors that excel at their respective tasks. The integration of these two components into one chip simplifies the system design and allows for more efficient communication between the two components.The DaVinci family of processors now scales from multiple core devices (e.g. DM644x) to single core DSP devices (e.g. DM643x) to single core ARM devices (e.g. DM355).More Detail.

TVL (Television Lines):

TVL describes a measure of an analog camera's or monitors's horizontal resolution.  It is an inherent quality of a camera or monitor should not be confused with the horizontal scanning lines of broadcast television systems, which e.g. for a PAL system are 625 lines, and for the NTSC system 525 lines. More Detail

TVS (Transient voltage suppressor):

A transient voltage suppressor or TVS is a general classification of an array of devices that are designed to react to sudden or momentary overvoltage conditions. One such common device used for this purpose is known as the transient voltage suppression diode that is simply a zener diode designed to protect electronics against overvoltages. Another design alternative applies a family of products that are known as metal-oxide varistor (MOV) that protect electronic circuits and electrical equipment. More Detail.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol):

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet Protocol Suite, the set of network protocols used for the Internet. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without requiring prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. More Detail.

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply):

UPS sometimes called an uninterruptible power source, is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available.  More Detail

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair):

UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable, a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced. A balun can also be used at the camera end for ones without a UTP output. Only one pair is necessary for each video signal.  More Detail

WAN (Wide Area Network):

A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving a vast array of computers. This is different from local area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room, building or campus. The most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.

WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. More Detail

See also Internet, LAN.

WDR (Wide Dynamic Range):

WDR is a feature of some CCTV cameras that can produce a clear image when there are very bright and very dark areas simultaneously in the field of view of the camera.  This feature is particularly useful in camera situations with a lot of backlight, such as when an indoor camera is pointed towards a door or window.  More Detail.